What does pharmacogenomic research entail? It is an investigation of individual’s genetic makeup and how it responds to drugs. To test your knowledge, take this quiz. It consists of 27 questions and covers the topics of genetics, pharmacogenetics, and precision medicine. Most of the questions focus on detection of genetic variability. The research approach is either deductive or inductive. Deductive research follows a known theory and tests its validity. Ethnographic research comes from anthropology and has a different approach.
Inductive approach follows the path of logic
Inductive approaches to pharmacogenomic research follow the logic of a process. If two individuals are given a particular drug and the same variant, they might respond differently to it. The first type of drug interaction leads to an ER stress response, while the second type of interaction causes muscle problems. This type of drug interaction results in competing research. This type of drug interaction causes complications for both the individual and the health care provider.
Inductive reasoning starts from observations and develops a series of hypotheses and theories based on the data collected. This approach starts with a specific set of observations and gradually moves to abstract generalisations. The researcher doesn’t develop a theory at the start, and they are free to modify their study direction after analyzing the data. The goal of inductive research is to discover new patterns and relationships from the available data.
Inductive approaches are based on physics, which can be used to model complex systems. They have become dominant in biomedical research and have a long track record of failure. An inductive approach is ineffective in addressing acute injury and many other fields. It is also based on an incomplete understanding of the human genome. In addition, the process of discovery is inherently biased.
An inductive approach to pharmacogenomic-based drug discovery has a strong purpose. It deals with the differences in response to drugs according to a person’s genetic makeup. As such, inductive methods use the path of logic to discover the best treatments. They often reduce the side-effects of drugs used to treat HIV. However, the process can undermine the credibility of science by limiting its effectiveness.
Deductive methods follow the path of logic. Hypotheses are formulated based on theories and data. The steps of inductive research are often matched. Sometimes, a researcher may combine the two approaches to arrive at a new insight. Inductive methods are also complementary. A researcher may plan to study multiple topics using one approach while conducting an experiment. But, in many cases, researchers may find that both approaches are necessary to answer new questions.
A common mistake made by scientists when developing a hypothesis is using a case study. The researcher must make an assumption, which is often not correct, and then apply the theory to the specific case. This results in a circular logic between the premise and the conclusion. Furthermore, it does not allow causality. The difference between an inductive and deductive approach is not so apparent and can be confusing.
Common rule applies to pharmacogenomic research
In a nutshell, pharmacogenomic research is the study of genes and how they influence how individuals respond to drugs. These studies have great potential to improve the development of new drugs, reduce the risk of adverse drug reactions, and lower health care costs. However, there are several ethical concerns that have risen from this research, as detailed below. These concerns relate to the research’s use of human samples in the study of genetic information.
During the research, participants are often the same people who will be taking a medication. The research participants may be sick and motivated to take part. Because of this, the researchers may be required to disclose incidental information to the participant. However, they must follow the rules laid out by ethics committees and respect the consent of the participants. It is important to understand the role of nurses in the research process.
Inequalities in access to health care often coexist with deep health status inequalities. Minority groups often have worse health status than their Caucasian, Native American, and poor counterparts. Even in societies with comprehensive national health insurance, the question of how these expensive drug therapies will fit into overall health care budgets needs to be considered. It is vital that these policies do not shortchange the most vulnerable members of society.
Although pharmacogenomic research is an early stage of development, it is showing significant promise for improving drug effectiveness and reducing adverse effects. However, it is a costly process that may be years away from implementation. Therefore, it is critical to understand the full benefits and potential of this research. It should be conducted on a large scale and be performed by a qualified researcher. It is also important to consider the role of human subjects in drug development and approval.
As the science of pharmacogenomics continues to evolve, it is important to remember that there is a significant problem with race. Health status in the United States has historically been associated with race. While the majority of white people have better health than black people, minority communities have never enjoyed equal access to medical care. Further, studies of pharmacogenomics should be conducted in developing countries. So the ethical issues associated with it must be carefully addressed before they lead to actual interventions.
Informed consent should be obtained when using genetic information. Patients should be informed of the risks involved in participating in such studies. The consent process should be documented as it should be. The ethical issues associated with pharmacogenomic research include privacy and confidentiality, and questions of justice. Nevertheless, there are still some ethical concerns with the research, and informed consent should be obtained. It is important to note that this type of research requires de-identification of identifiable research subjects.
Targeting serious adverse reactions is a priority for pharmacogenomic research
Genetics has a major influence on drug response. Drugs that affect certain enzymes, transport systems, or targets can be metabolized differently by different people. Pharmacogenomic research focuses on genetic variants that influence drug response and identify patients with an increased risk of adverse effects. Pharmacogenomic research involves examining many genes at the same time. This allows drug makers to improve their products by identifying the most sensitive and effective treatment regimens.
The promise of pharmacogenomic research is immense. It provides a scientific basis to target adverse drug reactions and improve drug safety. The availability of genetic data in large populations has allowed researchers to develop effective treatments for a wide range of illnesses. In fact, up to 95% of medication responses are attributed to a person’s genetic make-up. The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium was established to guide the translation of research into clinical practice.
Several large networks and consortia have formed to collect data on pharmacogenomic studies. Among them are the Clinical Pharmacogenetic Consortium and Pharmacogenomics Research Network. Despite their success, pharmacogenomic research is still a difficult science to implement in national and state health programs. In addition, large costs make pharmacogenomic research less widely adopted.
The success of pharmacogenomic research is highly dependent on the ability to identify genetic factors that increase the risk of adverse drug reactions. Several risk factors have been recognized historically. These include extreme age, impairment of organs of clearance, and genetic polymorphisms. Targeting these risk factors would help improve drug safety for both infants and their parents. For example, pharmacogenomic research could help to identify children at risk for adverse drug reactions.
In low and middle income countries, the greatest challenge to the implementation of pharmacogenomic research is the lack of healthcare infrastructure. As economic activity improves access to healthcare, the burden of noncommunicable diseases grows. This double burden of disease is extremely difficult to deal with in resource-poor environments, and implementation of pharmacogenomic practices may not be high on local health authorities’ priority lists.
Pediatric pharmacogenomic studies have been underway for about a decade. Recent studies have shown that parental support for this type of research is largely dependent on the understanding of how the drug would benefit the child. Further research in this area is likely to be beneficial for the child. The future of cancer treatments for children is bright! It’s time to put this information to work!